Monday, November 28, 2011

Nineteenth Amendment

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

The nineteenth amendment gives women the right to vote.
Here is a history on women's suffrage.
 Here is the story of one of the leaders in the woman's suffrage movement.

Eighteenth Amendment

Section 1.
After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2.
The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an Amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

The eighteenth amendment made it illegal to manufacture, sell or transport alcohol.
This video gives a detailed and entertaining background on prohibition.
Today there is no longer alcohol prohibition, however, this video gives a different view on prohibition today.

Seventeenth Amendment

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This Amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

The seventeenth amendment states that each state will have two senators no matter what the population of the state is and they will serve six year terms.
This video hits on each major part of the seventeenth amendment.
Here a judge gives his take on why the seventeenth amendment should be repealed.

Sixteenth Amendment

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

The sixteenth amendment gives congress the right to levy an income tax on its citizens.
This video tells the story about how political leaders brought the sixteenth amendment about.
A theory that the sixteenth amendment was never ratified.

Fifteenth Amendment

Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude--

Section 2.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

The fifteenth amendment prohibits governments in the United States from denying the right to vote to people based on race or color.
This video shows the history behind the fifteenth amendment.

A description of the fifteenth amendment given by a man in his garage.

Fourteenth Amendment

Section 1.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2.
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3.
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

The fourteenth amendment defines citizenship and goes over other complications involving citizenship.
This video shows the definition of a citizen.
Here Lindsey Graham discusses immigration issues and citizenship.

Thirteenth Amendment

Section 1.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

The thirteenth amendment officially abolished slavery.
This short documentary shows the after effects of the thirteenth amendment.
This shows life for African Americans leading up to the thirteenth amendment.

Twelfth Amendment

Section 1.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

The twelfth amendment set up the electoral college which is still in effect today in out nations presidential elections.
This is a quick and accurate description of the twelfth amendment.
This video shows an example of past controversy created by the twelfth amendment.

Eleventh Amendment

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

The eleventh amendment protects states from being sued by a person in federal court.
The text of the eleventh amendment is given along with a brief summary of its context.
Here is an example of a violation of the eleventh amendment.

Tenth Amendment

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

The tenth amendment states that powers not given to the federal government or prohibited by the states in the constitution are reserved for the states or the people.
In this video you get a modern look at how the tenth amendment is applied.
A politician gives a summary of the tenth amendment and tries to use it for his campaign in running for governor.

Ninth Amendment

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

The ninth amendment makes sure that our rights are not limited to only what is in the constitution.
Here is a young male nerd explaining the ninth amendment in excruciation detail.
In this video we have a much more well put together and slightly biased view of the ninth amendment.

Eighth Amendment

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

The eighth amendment protects us from excessive bail. excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment.
Here is a middle aged nerd doing a good job of explaining the eighth amendment.
This is an accurate display of what the United States would be like if we did not have the eighth amendment.

Seventh Amendment

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

The seventh amendment gives us the right to a jury trial in civil cases.
This video is very thorough in explaining the seventh amendment and it also has some good flow.
This high school student was able to demonstrate the rights the seventh amendment provides and he also added in some information on the twenty dollar clause.

Sixth Amendment

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

The sixth amendment gives those accused of a crime a number of rights throughout the process of a  prosecution.
This video tells all of the rights included in the sixth amendment in a time efficient way.

Here are several real life examples of how the sixth amendment could help you.

Monday, November 7, 2011

Fifth Amendment

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

The fifth amendment guarantees us the protection against double jeopardy, self incrimination, gives us the right to a trial by a grand jury and makes sure we are given compensation for property taken from us by the government.
Here is a clear interpretation of the fifth amendments core concepts.
This video takes a stab at President Obama in saying that he is damaging our right to the fifth amendment.

Fourth Amendment

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

The fourth amendment protects us from being unreasonably searched and our property from being seized without probable cause or a search warrant.
The senator does an excellent job of explaining why we need the fourth amendment.
Here is a look at a current event that is on the borderline of violating the fourth amendment of citizens in Boston.

Third Amendment

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

The third amendment makes it illegal for the government to quarter troops in the homes of its citizens in times of peace.
Here the third amendments meaning is explained and the reason why it was created is give.
This video shows the horrors of what life would be like if we did not have the second amendment.

Second Amendment

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

The second amendment allows us to bear arms in order to protect ourselves and families from possible dangers.
This video does a solid job of explaining the original purpose of the second amendment and also how it applies today.

 Here is a demonstration of some of  the debates going on today in our news about the second amendment.

First Amendment

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

The first amendment gives you the right to say what is on your mind, praise whichever God you believe and to write freely.
This Video gives a passionate view on the realities of the right to free speech today.
This clip tells the true purpose of the first amendment in a humorous manner.